Following World War Two and the horrors of the Holocaust, in 1947 the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 181, which called for the creation of two separate Jewish and Arab states. Israel declared itself an independent state in May 1948, and the next day Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq attempted to invade. Israel was able to repel the invasion, taking land that was originally reserved for Arab Palestinians in the process, and creating a large Palestinian refugee crisis.
The founding of Israel would be followed by decades of fighting and terrorism, from the 1948 Arab-Israel War and the 1967 Six-Day War to the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the First and Second Intifadas. As a result of the conflict, thousands of people have died and millions more have suffered, with an entire population becoming refugees. Attempts were made to end the conflict and bring peace to both sides. In 1993, Israeli and Palestinian leaders met to negotiate a potential peace agreement called the Oslo Accords. Although this would not bring peace, it would kick off years of diplomatic efforts to end the conflict, which is referred to as the peace process.
Today, the peace process revolves around negotiations between Israeli leaders, led by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, and Palestinian leaders, led by President Mahmoud Abbas. Within Israel, however, Netanyahu faces conflicting pressures from his own political party, opposing political parties, and Israeli citizens. Within Palestine, President Abbas is the recognized leader, but another group, Hamas, control a part of Palestine called the Gaza Strip, where they are effectively in control. Although there are two sides to the conflict, within each side there are different actors and internal pressures. With the decision of the US government to transfer the US embassy from Tel-Aviv to Jerusalem the situation heatened up even more. The intense conflict and various internal pressures of both sides means that the peace process requires help from the international community in order to move forward.
The United Nations, the European Union, the United States, and Russia have been particularly involved in the peace process, and the four of them are referred to as the “Quartet.” The Arab League is also involved in the peace process.
The task in this assembly will be to ensure peace and to avoid any further escalation.
The Security Council has to find a solution which helps the population of this region, deescalates the religious conflict between Jews and Muslims and establish a bilateral dialogue between Israel and Palestine.